Ubuntu 16.04安装Nginx

在Ubuntu下安装Nginx有以下方法,但是如果想要安装最新版本的就必须下载源码包编译安装。

基于APT源安装

sudo apt-get install nginx
安装好的文件位置:

/usr/sbin/nginx:主程序

/etc/nginx:存放配置文件

/usr/share/nginx:存放静态文件

/var/log/nginx:存放日志

其实从上面的根目录文件夹可以知道,Linux系统的配置文件一般放在/etc,日志一般放在/var/log,运行的程序一般放在/usr/sbin或者/usr/bin。

当然,如果要更清楚Nginx的配置项放在什么地方,可以打开/etc/nginx/nginx.conf

我猜测,Nginx如果指定默认加载/etc/nginx/nginx.conf的配置文件。如果要查看加载的是哪个配置文件,可以用这个命令sudo nginx -t或者ps -ef | grep nginx

然后通过这种方式安装的,会自动创建服务,会自动在/etc/init.d/nginx新建服务脚本,然后就可以使用sudo service nginx {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload|status|configtest|rotate|upgrade}的命令启动。

脚本如下:

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#!/bin/sh

### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: nginx
# Required-Start: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $syslog $named
# Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $syslog $named
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts the nginx web server
# Description: starts nginx using start-stop-daemon
### END INIT INFO

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/nginx
NAME=nginx
DESC=nginx

# Include nginx defaults if available
if [ -r /etc/default/nginx ]; then
. /etc/default/nginx
fi

STOP_SCHEDULE="${STOP_SCHEDULE:-QUIT/5/TERM/5/KILL/5}"

test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/init/vars.sh
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

# Try to extract nginx pidfile
PID=$(cat /etc/nginx/nginx.conf | grep -Ev '^\s*#' | awk 'BEGIN { RS="[;{}]" } { if ($1 == "pid") print $2 }' | head -n1)
if [ -z "$PID" ]; then
PID=/run/nginx.pid
fi

if [ -n "$ULIMIT" ]; then
# Set ulimit if it is set in /etc/default/nginx
ulimit $ULIMIT
fi

start_nginx() {
# Start the daemon/service
#
# Returns:
# 0 if daemon has been started
# 1 if daemon was already running
# 2 if daemon could not be started
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PID --exec $DAEMON --test > /dev/null \
|| return 1
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PID --exec $DAEMON -- \
$DAEMON_OPTS 2>/dev/null \
|| return 2
}

test_config() {
# Test the nginx configuration
$DAEMON -t $DAEMON_OPTS >/dev/null 2>&1
}

stop_nginx() {
# Stops the daemon/service
#
# Return
# 0 if daemon has been stopped
# 1 if daemon was already stopped
# 2 if daemon could not be stopped
# other if a failure occurred
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --retry=$STOP_SCHEDULE --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
RETVAL="$?"
sleep 1
return "$RETVAL"
}

reload_nginx() {
# Function that sends a SIGHUP to the daemon/service
start-stop-daemon --stop --signal HUP --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
return 0
}

rotate_logs() {
# Rotate log files
start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR1 --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
return 0
}

upgrade_nginx() {
# Online upgrade nginx executable
# http://nginx.org/en/docs/control.html
#
# Return
# 0 if nginx has been successfully upgraded
# 1 if nginx is not running
# 2 if the pid files were not created on time
# 3 if the old master could not be killed
if start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR2 --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME; then
# Wait for both old and new master to write their pid file
while [ ! -s "${PID}.oldbin" ] || [ ! -s "${PID}" ]; do
cnt=`expr $cnt + 1`
if [ $cnt -gt 10 ]; then
return 2
fi
sleep 1
done
# Everything is ready, gracefully stop the old master
if start-stop-daemon --stop --signal QUIT --quiet --pidfile "${PID}.oldbin" --name $NAME; then
return 0
else
return 3
fi
else
return 1
fi
}

case "$1" in
start)
log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
start_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1) log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
stop)
log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"
stop_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1) log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
restart)
log_daemon_msg "Restarting $DESC" "$NAME"

# Check configuration before stopping nginx
if ! test_config; then
log_end_msg 1 # Configuration error
exit $?
fi

stop_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1)
start_nginx
case "$?" in
0) log_end_msg 0 ;;
1) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Old process is still running
*) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Failed to start
esac
;;
*)
# Failed to stop
log_end_msg 1
;;
esac
;;
reload|force-reload)
log_daemon_msg "Reloading $DESC configuration" "$NAME"

# Check configuration before stopping nginx
#
# This is not entirely correct since the on-disk nginx binary
# may differ from the in-memory one, but that's not common.
# We prefer to check the configuration and return an error
# to the administrator.
if ! test_config; then
log_end_msg 1 # Configuration error
exit $?
fi

reload_nginx
log_end_msg $?
;;
configtest|testconfig)
log_daemon_msg "Testing $DESC configuration"
test_config
log_end_msg $?
;;
status)
status_of_proc -p $PID "$DAEMON" "$NAME" && exit 0 || exit $?
;;
upgrade)
log_daemon_msg "Upgrading binary" "$NAME"
upgrade_nginx
log_end_msg $?
;;
rotate)
log_daemon_msg "Re-opening $DESC log files" "$NAME"
rotate_logs
log_end_msg $?
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $NAME {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload|status|configtest|rotate|upgrade}" >&2
exit 3
;;
esac

还有一个好处,创建好的文件由于放在/usr/sbin目录下,所以能直接在终端中使用nginx命令而无需指定路径。

通过源码包编译安装

这种方式可以自定安装指定的模块以及最新的版本。方式更灵活。

官方下载页面:http://nginx.org/en/download.html

configure配置文件详解:http://nginx.org/en/docs/configure.html

安装gcc g++的依赖库

sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install libtool

安装pcre依赖库(http://www.pcre.org/)

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libpcre3 libpcre3-dev

安装zlib依赖库(http://www.zlib.net)

sudo apt-get install zlib1g-dev

安装SSL依赖库(16.04默认已经安装了)

sudo apt-get install openssl
安装Nginx

下载最新版本:

wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.14.2.tar.gz

解压:

tar -zxvf nginx-1.14.2.tar.gz

进入解压目录:

cd nginx-1.14.2

配置:

./configure –prefix=/usr/local/nginx

编译:

make

安装:

sudo make install

启动:

sudo /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
注意:-c 指定配置文件的路径,不加的话,nginx会自动加载默认路径的配置文件,可以通过-h查看帮助命令。

查看进程:

ps -ef | grep nginx

配置软链接

sudo ln -s /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/bin/nginx
现在就可以不用路径直接输入nginx启动。

配置开机启动服务

在/etc/init.d/下创建nginx文件,sudo vim /etc/init.d/nginx,内容如下:

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#!/bin/sh

### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: nginx
# Required-Start: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $syslog $named
# Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $syslog $named
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts the nginx web server
# Description: starts nginx using start-stop-daemon
### END INIT INFO

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DAEMON=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
NAME=nginx
DESC=nginx

# Include nginx defaults if available
if [ -r /etc/default/nginx ]; then
. /etc/default/nginx
fi

STOP_SCHEDULE="${STOP_SCHEDULE:-QUIT/5/TERM/5/KILL/5}"

test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/init/vars.sh
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

# Try to extract nginx pidfile
PID=$(cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf | grep -Ev '^\s*#' | awk 'BEGIN { RS="[;{}]" } { if ($1 == "pid") print $2 }' | head -n1)
if [ -z "$PID" ]; then
PID=/run/nginx.pid
fi

if [ -n "$ULIMIT" ]; then
# Set ulimit if it is set in /etc/default/nginx
ulimit $ULIMIT
fi

start_nginx() {
# Start the daemon/service
#
# Returns:
# 0 if daemon has been started
# 1 if daemon was already running
# 2 if daemon could not be started
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PID --exec $DAEMON --test > /dev/null \
|| return 1
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PID --exec $DAEMON -- \
$DAEMON_OPTS 2>/dev/null \
|| return 2
}

test_config() {
# Test the nginx configuration
$DAEMON -t $DAEMON_OPTS >/dev/null 2>&1
}

stop_nginx() {
# Stops the daemon/service
#
# Return
# 0 if daemon has been stopped
# 1 if daemon was already stopped
# 2 if daemon could not be stopped
# other if a failure occurred
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --retry=$STOP_SCHEDULE --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
RETVAL="$?"
sleep 1
return "$RETVAL"
}

reload_nginx() {
# Function that sends a SIGHUP to the daemon/service
start-stop-daemon --stop --signal HUP --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
return 0
}

rotate_logs() {
# Rotate log files
start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR1 --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME
return 0
}

upgrade_nginx() {
# Online upgrade nginx executable
# http://nginx.org/en/docs/control.html
#
# Return
# 0 if nginx has been successfully upgraded
# 1 if nginx is not running
# 2 if the pid files were not created on time
# 3 if the old master could not be killed
if start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR2 --quiet --pidfile $PID --name $NAME; then
# Wait for both old and new master to write their pid file
while [ ! -s "${PID}.oldbin" ] || [ ! -s "${PID}" ]; do
cnt=`expr $cnt + 1`
if [ $cnt -gt 10 ]; then
return 2
fi
sleep 1
done
# Everything is ready, gracefully stop the old master
if start-stop-daemon --stop --signal QUIT --quiet --pidfile "${PID}.oldbin" --name $NAME; then
return 0
else
return 3
fi
else
return 1
fi
}

case "$1" in
start)
log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
start_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1) log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
stop)
log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"
stop_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1) log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
restart)
log_daemon_msg "Restarting $DESC" "$NAME"

# Check configuration before stopping nginx
if ! test_config; then
log_end_msg 1 # Configuration error
exit $?
fi

stop_nginx
case "$?" in
0|1)
start_nginx
case "$?" in
0) log_end_msg 0 ;;
1) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Old process is still running
*) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Failed to start
esac
;;
*)
# Failed to stop
log_end_msg 1
;;
esac
;;
reload|force-reload)
log_daemon_msg "Reloading $DESC configuration" "$NAME"

# Check configuration before stopping nginx
#
# This is not entirely correct since the on-disk nginx binary
# may differ from the in-memory one, but that's not common.
# We prefer to check the configuration and return an error
# to the administrator.
if ! test_config; then
log_end_msg 1 # Configuration error
exit $?
fi

reload_nginx
log_end_msg $?
;;
configtest|testconfig)
log_daemon_msg "Testing $DESC configuration"
test_config
log_end_msg $?
;;
status)
status_of_proc -p $PID "$DAEMON" "$NAME" && exit 0 || exit $?
;;
upgrade)
log_daemon_msg "Upgrading binary" "$NAME"
upgrade_nginx
log_end_msg $?
;;
rotate)
log_daemon_msg "Re-opening $DESC log files" "$NAME"
rotate_logs
log_end_msg $?
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $NAME {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload|status|configtest|rotate|upgrade}" >&2
exit 3
;;
esac

设置服务脚本有执行权限

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/nginx

注册服务

cd /etc/init.d/
sudo update-rc.d nginx defaults
现在基本上就可以开机启动了,常用的命令如下:

sudo service nginx {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload|status|configtest|rotate|upgrade}

参考:

http://www.cnblogs.com/piscesLoveCc/p/5794926.html(以上部分内容转自此篇文章)

http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2016-08/134080.htm

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000002797601

原文

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